The global economic crisis of 2008 pushed China’s ambitions both in the area of science and technology, and territorial expansion. While the developed world suffered, China rode out the crisis and, indeed, gained from it. In October 2010, China announced that it was developing seven strategic emerging industries to reorient the country’s economic development model: new energy vehicles, new materials, high-end manufacturing, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology, next-generation IT, and energy-efficient environment technology. These were then incorporated into the Five-Year Plan for Strategic Emerging Industries (SEI) which provided the key policy measures.
The central government drafted the guidelines and principles while the local governments handled implementation. The leadership role was played by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and its provincial affiliates, the Development Reform Commissions (DRCs) as well as the Ministry of Finance which managed the funds for SEI development. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) and its provincial affiliates developed the specific plans for the SEIs. The Ministry of Science and Technology and its local offices coordinated with other agencies in SEI development, especially in promoting domestic innovation and tech development. The State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) focused on protecting IPR within the SEIs.
 “China’s Strategic Emerging Industries: Relevant Government Players”, The US China Business Council, August 2012, https://www.uschina.org/sites/default/files/seis_by_sector_0.pdf, accessed on September 9, 2019
 “China’s Strategic Emerging Industries: Policy, Implementation, Challenges, & Recommendations,” The US China Business Council, March 2013 https://www.uschina.org/sites/default/files/sei-report.pdf, accessed on August 6, 2019